The Importance of a Shoe Last and How to Choose the Right One

The importance of a shoe last is one of the most overlooked aspects of buying and wearing men’s shoes.

When choosing new shoes, most men, even those with an interest in shoes, will focus mainly on the style of the shoe i.e. are they looking for an oxford, loafer, derby, brogue? etc, with a secondary consideration being the leather used.

So the process goes something like this; “I want a new pair of shoes to wear with jeans. I’d like dark brown suede because that works well with denim, and a cap toe derby with a medallion on the toe will add texture and surface interest.”

Once that criteria is decided upon, they’ll then set about finding a shoe which matches that criteria. But that process doesn’t consider the most crucial and most overlooked aspect of the shoe – the last.

The last is the shaped block of wood or plastic composite which a shoe is built around. Bespoke or made to measure typically uses a hand shaped wooden last, whereas anything on a production line generally uses a plastic composite.

My bespoke Cleverley last

The last does a couple of key things which make it so important. Primarily, fit and aesthetics. First and most obviously, in setting the unique shape of the shoe, the last determines how it will fit a given foot. In practical terms, what this means is that a size 8 isn’t a size 8. It might be a size 8 with a narrow heel, low instep, wide forefoot and long toe box, or the exact opposite.

From a fit point of view, this really matters. If you get it wrong, you’re going to wind up with a shoe which is technically the correct size, but is all over the place in terms of fit and comfort. This is why finding a last which fits your foot (either perfectly for well executed bespoke, or well for ready to wear) is so valuable.

Given the proclivity of men to find something they like (i.e. jeans, a suit block, shirt style or shoe), stick with it and then buy it repeatedly either when it wears out or in different colours or materials, you can see how finding the right last pays off over time.

Many men make the mistake of thinking that the main and best reason for having bespoke shoes made is the ability to choose all of the details (leathers, lining, personalised details etc) but it isn’t. It’s fit (in the same way I wrote about the most important thing in a suit a while ago). Bespoke shoes are valuable because of how well they fit. Being able to choose the details and personalise them is a secondary benefit. All of that is working on the assumption that the maker actually gets the fit right.

I know I harp on about St. Crispin’s made to measure offering, but it really is the best value for money product in the market, combing a personalised last, with all of the other freedoms of choice afforded to bespoke.

The second element of a lasts function is aesthetics. Whilst the dimensions of a shoe will affect its aesthetics insofar as having a narrow heel will look narrower at the back, for example, the aesthetics of a last tend to be most noticeable and unique in the toe-box.

All size 7.5, all fit me, but each has its own variations and unique characteristics. The two which stand out most are my Cleverley’s (far left) for their sharp and square profile, and my Crockett and Jones Cavendish (third from left) for being basically the opposite. Notice also where the apron stitching varies (the curved raised stitching which frame the tassels) and how it stops much earlier on my Lof and Tung loafers (third from right) and runs much deeper into the toe on the Cavendish.

It’s taken me years and buying a lot of shoes to understand the style of last I like and what my perfect shape is, that being a fairly classic English aesthetic of a semi-rounded, slightly a-symmetrical toe box. Classic and simple. My feet are slightly larger, proportionally, than the rest of my body, which means anything with a long toe box makes my feet look too big. So a short, rounded toe box which follows the line of my toes closely, and stops quickly, helps to keep everything in proportion and it just looks right.

When I had my bespoke Cleverley’s made a few years ago, I hadn’t really given any consideration to the shape of the toe-box as I didn’t yet understand how important it was or what shape I most liked. Cleverley are known for their “suspiciously square” toe and whilst I could have requested a rounded toe, I thought it would be a good idea to go with what they’re known for and see what a square toe would look like. In hindsight, maybe not the best decision to take a punt on a £3,000 pair of shoes.

Slight variations in length in each shoe

I still love the shoes. They’re my first pair of bespoke shoes and so much about them makes me happy, but I’ve worn them maybe half a dozen times in the 3 or 4 years I’ve owned them because I just don’t like looking down at that square toe-box. Plus, they run a bit long, making my feet look too big. I’ll have this rectified by re-lasting them when I’m next in London, changing to a shape more in line with my preference, but it’s a costly error to make.

Such a stark comparison in last shapes. The rounded and shorter Cavendish (right), against the more square and longer Cleverley. What doesn’t stand out as much, but makes a huge difference when worn, are the different heel cups. As I have narrow heels, the bespoke Cleverley’s hug my heel and fit like a glove. It makes for such a comfortable and secure feeling when walking.

Crockett and Jones “Cavendish” loafer and Edward Greene’s “Belgravia” are my ideal loafers (and for many others as well, given their cult followings). They fit almost perfectly, and are so well balanced, visually, that they work with just anything else you wear (as long as they leather is the right match for the texture of your clothes). But that’s just me. You might not like them and you need to find a last which you feel at home in.

A more subtle comparison. The Carmina (top) on their Forest last, against Crockett and Jones’ Westfield on the 341 last. The Carmina has more width through the forefoot (which I need) and the C&J runs a straighter line down the inside, making it narrower. The Carmina is comfortable, whereas the C&J is always putting pressure on the inside of my forefoot. Still completely wearable, but mildly uncomfortable (and annoying, as a result)
The same two shoes as above, where you can now see the difference in how the last effects the toe-box. The Crockett and Jones (rear) has a sleeker toe profile, whereas the Carmina is much more full. I’ve come to dislike this about the Carmina’s as it’s unnecessarily bulbous and takes away from what is otherwise a clean last.

It all boils down to those two elements of fit and aesthetics. Once you’ve identified a last which fits well and is a good match for the natural proportions of your feet, then it’s a matter of making sure that they’re visually appealing (to you, it doesn’t matter what anyone else thinks). If you can find a last which can give you both of those things, you’ll have shoes that you look forward to wearing every day and can then go about building a collection which you love.

Andrew is an Australian born writer, covering the world's leading bespoke tailors and craftspeople in menswear, with a focus on authentic quality, over branding. He spends most of his days running his successful (god knows how) consulting company and travels frequently to Europe for work and writing. He's a passionate cyclist, former trainee professional golfer and lover of all things Cocker Spaniel. He's married to his best friend and significantly better half, Mehri. They have 2 little boys born 11 months apart, which was funny for about 2 seconds before reality set in.

5 Comments

  • Reply May 23, 2019

    James

    Good article, Andrew. I agree that a lot of people buy shoes based on brand, colour or material, rather than the last (and the subsequent fit of the shoes).

    I don’t think that the situation is helped by a couple of factors:
    – a lot of people buy shoes over the internet nowadays and so don’t even try them on before buying them, but instead rely upon second-hand descriptions of how that particular type of shoe fits; and
    – even if buying from a shoe store, a lot of people working in shoe stores nowadays don’t actually know how a shoe should fit and don’t take things such as high insteps into account when trying to find a last or style that fits a particular pair of feet.

    • Reply May 29, 2019

      Andrew Doyle

      Very much correct about buying online. Until you’ve put the shoe on and looked down at it on your foot, you’ll never know how it’s going to look and feel. The best approach is the find a last you like in person, then you can re-order online anytime after.
      Also correct about the experience of in-store expertise. Even in stores which I regard highly, I’ve had bad advice which has resulted in buying shoes which later ended up as painful and unwearable. There aren’t many people who really know how to analyse someones foot and advise accordingly. It tends to be the bespoke or MTM makers who really get it.

  • Reply October 1, 2019

    Vinay

    Great article.

    I am based in Sydney Australia (is that where you are based Andrew?).

    We have limited supply of quality shoe retail shops. I can only really think of Double Monk. Do you know of other stores in Sydney (or Australia) that stock quality brands and footwear that could be worth trying?

    Thanks

    • Reply October 2, 2019

      Andrew Doyle

      Thanks Vinay. I’m in Canberra. Double Monk is the only store/s (Sydney and Melbourne) in Australia with what I’d regard as quality mens shoes. Fortunately, they carry some of the best shoes in the world and they’re as good as any store anywhere (particularly Melbourne, which I’d regard as the best mens shoe store in the world (in terms of fit out, atmosphere, product).
      I believe Crane Brothers https://crane-brothers.com/ are also now doing shoes, made in Spain (I think) and though I’ve only seen images, some of the lasts look nice, so that might be worth considering.
      Their next Sydney trunk visit is in November.

  • Reply October 2, 2019

    Vinay

    Thanks Andrew.

    Might stick with selecting a C&J pair from Double Monk. But I will definitely look into Crane Brothers who I know make decent MTM suits.

    Do you tend to make your shoe purchases when you are travelling abroad given the limited options in Australia?

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